Pappenheim visited many places where white slavery flourished, including Galicia, Russia, Hungary, Bulgaria, the Balkans, Palestine, and Egypt, to study the subject closely and raise awareness among Jewish communities about the need to save Jewish girls from humiliation. She wrote her impressions in letters from the places she visited (1911-1912), published in a book entitled Sisyphean Work (1911), where she recounted how she desperately tried to inform Jewish communities of the gravity of the situation. She claimed that the silence of Jewish community leaders, who claimed to fear anti-Semitism to justify their non-interference, was in fact a kind of collaboration with crime. The Jewish Women`s League, which she founded in 1904, brought together most Jewish women`s organizations in Germany. Within a few years, it had grown into one of the largest Jewish women`s organizations in the world, with 50,000 members by 1920. It has done much to combat trafficking in women, including through prevention. She supported the establishment of girls` schools in Poland, sent letters to Jewish families, distributed leaflets warning them of job offers in newspapers, arranged marriages abroad, set up first-aid stations in ports and train stations in European cities where volunteers wearing the Magen David symbol guided unaccompanied girls, and set up associations and shelters for women in need. For nearly twenty-seven years, Bertha Pappenheim ran an animal shelter in Neu-Isenburg near Frankfurt, one of the largest in Europe, for needy single mothers and their children. These international civil society conferences were followed by formal international governmental cooperation in the fight against trafficking in human beings for sexual exploitation. After World War I, the agreements were made under the aegis of the League of Nations, which became the preeminent site of activism against sex trafficking in the interwar period. In the first half of the twentieth century, there were a number of international conventions on the white slave trade: Jewish women involved in public activities were the first to encounter the issue of white slavery in international committees of women`s organizations and in committees on trafficking in women. They were horrified when they heard statistics about Jewish involvement in crimes and the unprecedented number of Jewish women involved in prostitution.

Several leaders who led the public and social struggle for women in need in Europe and in countries of immigration such as the United States were among the first to tackle the problem in practical ways. These pioneers included Constance Rothschild, Lady Battersea of the United Kingdom, Bertha Pappenheim of Germany and Sadie American of the United States. They influenced Jewish women in other countries to join the fight against trafficking in women in the Jewish world, although they initially encountered resistance from community leaders, mostly Orthodox men and rabbis, who were rebuffed by the issue. Tens of thousands of slaves were forced to work in mines or quarries where conditions were notoriously brutal. The damnati in metallum (“those who are condemned to the mine”) were convicts who lost their freedom as citizens (libertas), lost their property (bona) to the state, and became servis poenae, slaves, as punishment. Their status under the law was different from that of other slaves; They could not buy their freedom, be sold or released. They were expected to live and die in the mines. [40] Imperial slaves and freedmen (the Caesaris familia) worked in the administration and administration of the mines. [41] Davis`s figures have been questioned by other historians such as David Earle, who warns that the true picture of European slaves is clouded by the fact that privateers also captured non-Christian whites from Eastern Europe and blacks from West Africa.

[19] A second book by Davis, Holy War and Human Bondage: Tales of Christian-Muslim Slavery in the Early-Modern Mediterranean, broadened his focus on related slavery. [20] And she wore some of the jewelry with the white dress – only a few, of course not many. There were rumors of screams and lightning coming from the fountain, and reports of a figure in white. England was the first to introduce formal restrictions on immigration with the Aliens Act 1905. The Aliens Act was enforced by anti-Jewish sentiments, but had a profound impact on foreign women working in prostitution. It created the framework for immigration control, which was strengthened in the following years, particularly with regard to foreign prostitutes. These domestic laws, along with international treaties on white slavery, have created complex powers to monitor and repatriate foreign women suspected of prostitution.